The Materials Research Center is well served with equipment for processing and characterization of the materials. The equipment listed could either be central facilities (marked CF) or associated with the laboratories of individual faculty members. {Prof. S. B. Krupanidhi (SBK), Prof. K.B.R. Varma (KBR), Prof. S. A. Shivashankar (SAS), Prof. Arun M. Umarji (AMU), Dr. N. Ravishankar (NR), Dr. K. K. Nanda (KKN) and Dr. Srinivasan Raghavan (SR)}. Apart from departmental facilities the students also have access to institute and national facilities such as the characterization facilities in the Institute Nano-Science Initiative.

    1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: MBE system from Omicron NanoTechnology, having 6 different effusion cells (for Ga, In, Al, As, Zn, Si ) and N2 plasma source, equipped with in-situ RHEED (Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction) and variable temperature STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) (SBK).
    2. Laser for pulsed laser deposition of thin films: Lambda Physik COMPex series 201 and 102 Excimer Laser coupled to 3 multi-target ablation chambers for growth of complex oxide thin films and artificial superlattices (SBK).
    3. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition reactor: MOCVD (CVD Corp.) reactor for growth of GaAs based solar cells heterostructures (SBK).
    4. RF Sputtering system/Multi-Magnetron DC sputtering system (SBK).
    5. Thermolyne High Temperature Furnace: Muffle furnace with a maximum operating temperature of 1700°C. (KBR)
    6. Lenton Glass Melting Furnace: Maximum operating temperature 1700°C. (KBR)
    7. Induction furnace: (KBR)
    8. Czochralski single crystal puller: (KBR)
    9. Atomic Layer Deposition System (ALD): The system is a multi channel (5 channels), multi gas (N2, O2, H2, and Ar) low pressure state of the art atomic layer CVD deposition system built indigenously. The system has two cold-wall deposition reaction chambers viz. vertical and horizontal. The substrate temperatures are achieved by localized susceptor heating. The gas control and purge sequences are all computer controlled, electronically interfaced and actuated by pneumatic valves. The multi channel configuration allows doping and performing complex compound reactions with 5 different chemical complexes in a single deposition process (SAS).
    10. Chemical vapor deposition systems: The laboratory is equipped with four low-pressure, hot-wall, horizontal CVD systems, all of which are dual channel permitting any type of doping in a deposition process. Of the four units, each unit is currently dedicated to a particular chemical system viz. Titanium Di-oxide, Vanadium Oxides, Manganese Oxide and Alumina.(SAS)
    11. Chemical synthesis laboratory: The CVD of compounds requires metal-organic chemical precursors, for which the SAS lab relies on its own synthesis laboratory. The laboratory is fully equipped with all the facilities for chemical synthesis of metal-organic compounds.(SAS)
    12. Electro-deposition systems: The laboratory has 2 electro-deposition systems for depositing metal electrodes like Aluminum, Gold etc. for making electrical contacts. (SAS)
    13. Microwave oven (800 watts): The microwave oven is used to synthesize nanostructured compounds by microwave assisted heating of metal-organic complexes.(SAS)
    14. Thermal Evaporator: The Thermal Evaporator evaporates and deposits metal onto substrates. Under vacuum, current is passed through a filament boat, which heats up the metal contained on the boat. When the evaporation current is reached, the melted metal evaporates onto the substrate.(AMU)
    15. Hot uniaxial Press: (AMU)
    16. Vacuum Furnace: Horizontal tube furnace capable of continuous operation at 1100°C and 10-3 Torr pressure (NR)
    17. High Temp Furnace: Horizontal tube furnace with silicon carbide elements capable of continuous operation in air at 1600°C. (NR)
    18. Two Lenton horizontal tube furnaces: Capable of 1100°C and 1500°C maximum operating temperature. (KKN)
    19. CVD Reactor: Indigenously built CVD reactor for synthesis and studying crystal growth of group III-A nitride and other semiconductor nanowires and micro-crystals. (SR, under construction)
    20. Ball Mill

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION:

    1. Olympus visible light microscope with CCD camera attachment: Two such facilities are available in the department. One as part of the central facility and one with Dr. N. Ravishankar
    2. Cambridge scanning electron microscope with EDAX attachment (CF)
    3. Jeol200CX Transmission electron microscope (CF)
    4. Phillips powder x-ray diffractometer (CF)
    5. Scintag high temperature x-ray diffractometer (CF)

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION:

    • AFM (Veeco CP-II) (SBK)

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION:

    1. Impedance Analyzer (Agilent Technologies - 4294A) (SBK)
    2. Radiant Technologies Precision Workstation, LCZ Meter (Keithley - 3330) (SBK),
    3. SMU (Keithley - Model 236) (SBK)
    4. Noise measurement using Stanford Research Systems model 770 Network Analyzer and Model 560 dual-channel Voltage Preamplifier. (SBK)
    5. Impedance/Gain phase analyzer (HP 4194A) Frequency range 100Hz-40MHz (KBR)
    6. LCZ meter: Keithley 3330 (KBR)
    7. Automated Pyroelectric measurement setup used the find out the TSDC (Temperature Stimulated Depolarization current) and Pyroelectric current (KBR)
    8. Keithley Picoammeter (KBR)
    9. d33 meter (KBR)
    10. Sawyer Tower Ferroelectric Hysteresis loop measurement setup (Home 
      made) (KBR)

OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION:

  1. Low Temperature Photoluminescence measurement system (8 K to 400 K) (SBK)
  2. Electro-optic setup: The setup is used to find out the Electro optic coefficient of a material.The electro-optic effect is the modification of the refractive index of a medium, caused by an electric field. Only non-centrosymmetric crystal materials exhibit the linear electro-optic effect, also called Pockels effect, where the refractive index change is proportional to the electric field strength. Basically all other transparent media exhibit only the Kerr electro-optic effect, where the refractive index change is proportional to the square of the electric field strength, and is typically much weaker than for the linear effect. Materials exhibiting the Pockels effect are called electro-optic materials. The linear electro-optic effect is exploited in Pockels cells, which can be part of electro-optic modulators, and for electro-optic sampling. (KBR)
  3. Hitachi U-3000 spectophotometer: UV-Visible range. (KBR)
  4. Field emission testing setup: Indigenously fabricated set up for studying field emission in nanowires. Vacuum chamber can be pumped down to 10-6 Torr. (KKN)

THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION:

  1. Differential Scanning Calorimeter: Perkin-Elmer power compensating DSC capable of operating up to 700°C. (KBR)
  2. Thermal analysis cluster consisting of a DTA/TGA and DSC: (CF)
  3. High temperature thermal conductivity measurement setup: Home-built apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity value of small samples 1mm x1mmx10mm based on the parallel conductance technique from room temperature to 700 K. The same apparatus can also be used to measure the Seebeck coefficient of a material without disturbing the physical mounting.(AMU)
  4. High Temperature Dilatometer: Home-built instrument for measuring the dimensional change caused by subjecting a sample to a change in temperature.(AMU)

MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION:

Instron Universal Testing Machine (UTM): UTM machine designed for testing various materials like rubber, plastics, cables, leather, paper, plywood and metals. Tension, compression, bend and flexural tests can be performed with suitable grips and fixtures.(CF)

MAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION:

Vibration sample magnetometer(VSM): The VSM is used to measure the magnetic properties of material. For more information visit http://www.dms-magnetics.com/pdf/vsmmost.pdf. (CF)

OTHERS:

Gas Sensing Apparatus: Home-built gas sensing setup to measure the response of thin film sensors to various gases and liquid vapors. This is used for inflammable gases, toxic gases, and pollutants, and for liquid vapors such as alcohol and flammable organic liquids. The electrical resistance of the thin film varies with change in the concentration of the gas being sensed, and thus gas concentrations can be measured. These measurements can be done up to 500°C. (AMU)

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